Category Archives for Paternity Tests

how much do paternity tests cost

Paternity Test Costs – What’s Included?

Paternity tests

Paternity test costs – What’s included

Paternity test costs – What’s included?

Paternity test pricing depends largely on how the test results will be used. When court cases are involved, paternity testing generally costs more. However, if you are merely interested in having a paternity test performed for your personal use, you can count on incurring only a modest expense. Additionally, when the paternity test occurs affects pricing. Paternity testing in the womb is generally more expensive than tests that are performed after birth. Understanding what is included in the cost of paternity testing can help you decide which option is right for you.

Various court cases might require legal paternity tests. Matters involving child support, child custody, taxes, adoption, birth certificates, wills and estates and immigration are all common examples of these cases. A great many items are included in the price of these tests. Collecting the specimens and having them tested at a state-of-the-art facility are only the beginning. The lab is responsible for producing legal documents that attest to the accuracy of the results. Moreover, a strict chain-of-custody must be observed so that the samples are not been tampered with. The many layers of certification that are involved cause these tests to be more expensive. Customers can expect that the official test results will be delivered to the pertinent court or government officials.

Paternity Test Costs – Know why you are testing.

Some people want the results of a paternity test but don’t intend to use the, as evidence. This eliminates the expense of having the specimen collected at the facility. The cost is also reduced because the chain-of-custody protocol is less stringent. Labs that perform this kind of paternity test can mail kits to the participants so they can collect their own sample. This means taking a cheek swab and then sending the sample to the lab. The full documentation of the results is included in the price.

If you’re interested in paternity testing before birth, then it’s necessary for the baby’s DNA to be collected through more invasive means. Typically, this means that the mother must visit the gynecologist to have a sample collected. This often incurs an extra expense. Once the sample is collected, it is sent to the lab. Pricing is determined by how the results are used. Legal tests will be more expensive because of chain-of-title issues. Tests results that will only be used for personal knowledge generally cost significantly less.

Whether you’re an adult who wants to discover more about your parentage or you are the mother of a baby and are unsure of the identity of the father, paternity testing can be immensely helpful. For providing valuable evidence in court cases or satisfying a lifelong curiosity, paternity testing before birth and at any time thereafter can answer a multitude of questions.

Paternity tests

Paternity Tests – How They Work

Paternity tests

Paternity tests how they work

Where questions of paternity are involved, it’s vitally important to get accurate answers. Modern technology provides us with the ability to analyze basic genetic building blocks, which are known as DNA. This makes it possible to determine who a child’s father is with an incredibly high degree of accuracy. These results can settle legal matters or satisfy curiosity concerning a person’s paternity. Understanding how DNA paternity testing works makes it easier for interested parties to feel confident about the outcome. It’s important to know the answer to “Paternity tests – how they work”, before buying a kit.

DNA paternity testing begins with a buccal, or cheek, swab. Depending upon how the test results will be used, the sample is taken by a technician in a lab or may be done by the test subject at home. The swab used to collect the sample is a special one that allows skin cells to cling to its surface. Not so many years ago, blood tests were required to check for paternity. These tests merely looked at blood type. Accordingly, this method was far less precise. Test results could rule out that a certain man was a child’s father, but could not prove that he was the father.

Paternity Tests – DNA Testing

DNA paternity testing is much more accurate. This accuracy is possible despite the fact that most DNA is identical from person to person. Nonetheless, portions of each person’s DNA are unique, and it’s these portions that determine a person’s paternity. An individual’s DNA comes to them from their father and mother. Accordingly, more accurate test results can be achieved if the lab tests the DNA of the mother, child and possible father.

DNA is expressed through four base letters, A, C, G and T. These letters form a code called the DNA sequence. Approximately every one thousand letters or bases, an individual will have a different letter when compared to a large selection of other individuals. Frequently, a lab will rely on a process called DNA restriction analysis to look for similar DNA sequences between a child and his parents. This process locates the places in the DNA sequence that are cut by restriction enzymes. These enzymes are capable of cutting DNA, and each enzyme looks for a specific base sequence to cut. When a technician locates these cuts, they are able to determine a person’s parentage with up to 99.9 percent accuracy.

This accuracy rate is what makes DNA paternity testing so reliable. It’s so trustworthy that these results can be relied upon in a court of law. Of course, it isn’t necessary to wait for a child to be born in order to conduct DNA paternity testing. Paternity testing before birth is a possibility when the mother needs to prove the identity of her child’s father beyond a reasonable doubt.

blood-paternity-test

Paternity Testing By Blood Type

Paternity Testing By Blood Type

blood-paternity-test

Paternity testing by blood type used to be the only way to establish paternity. Before the days of DNA testing, people used to look at blood type to determine if or if not a man could be the father of a child.  This was far from an exact science, but could narrow down the possibilities.  In the past, this typically involved identifying specific phenotypes (in particular, specific blood types) in the child and using this information to either “rule in” or “rule out” possible fathers. However, this system presented a number of problems, not the least of which was that it often yielded inconclusive results.

According to Wikipedia ” Blood types are inherited and represent contributions from both parents. A total of 35 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT).”   The main type of blood are A, B, O, AB, and the RhD factor, example A+ or B-.

Paternity Testing By Blood Type Today

Today, the best-known blood-typing system is ABO typing, which involves the presence of antigens on red blood cells that are encoded by the ABOlocus on human chromosome 9. In the ABO system, the A allele and the B allele are  codominate and the O allele is recessive. Thus, if a person’s ABO blood type is O, he or she has two O alleles. If, however, a person’s blood type is A, he or she has either two A alleles or one A allele and one O allele. Similarly, if a person has type B blood, this indicates the presence of either two B alleles or one B allele and one O allele. Finally, some people have type AB blood, which means they inherited both an A allele and a B allele. As you can determine, paternity testing by blood type isn’t specific enough for the accuracy needed.

From the website Dr. Geene.com http://www.drgreene.com/qa-articles/blood-types-102-role-ab-groups-determining-paternity/ is this chart with impossible situations for a child’s blood type. For example if the mother of your child had O blood and you have O blood and the baby has A, this would eliminate you from being the father of the child.

Using Blood Type in Determining Paternity:Possible and Impossible Situations

Parents’ Blood Types

Possible Children

Impossible Children

A & A

A, O

B, AB

A & B

A, B, AB, O

none

A & AB

A, B, AB

O

A & O

A, O

B, AB

B & B

B, O

A, AB

B & AB

A, B, AB

O

B & O

B, O

A, AB

AB &AB

A, B, AB

O

AB & O

A, B

AB, O

O & O

O

A, B, AB

 

These are general rules, though, and exceptions apply. Very rarely, gene mutations may change the rules such that “impossible children” become possible.

Today there are over 600 blood types known (as well as other tissue types called HLA types), which can make paternity testing far more accurate — but still not perfect.

DNA fingerprinting was developed by Alec Jeffreys in 1984, and it first became available for paternity testing in 1988.  Modern day DNA testing is 99.99% accurate, 999 out of 1000 accurate.  DNA testing is the standard legal test accepted today and is much more accurate that blood test used to be.

Paternity testing by blood type played it’s part in paternity history but check our other articles about DNA testing.

Four Things You Need To Know About Paternity Tests

Four Things You Need To Know About Paternity Tests

Four Things You Need To Know About Paternity Tests Four Things You Need To Know About Paternity Tests

Paternity tests were once a reserve for the few who actually knew what the tests were, and those who could afford them. Now there is awareness throughout the world about these tests and they have also become affordable to most people: Despite this, there is still a lot of information concerning these tests that remains unknown or doubtful. Read on to uncover some of this information:

Four Things You Need To Know About Paternity Tests

1) How accurate is DNA Paternity testing?

Scientific research has proven that DNA paternity tests are 99.9%+ accurate in establishing who the father or mother of a child is. Also, these tests are 100% accurate in proving that an individual is not the biological parent of a child. Previously, blood group tests were analyzed to determine that a particular person was not a child’s parent; however, these tests could not prove that a person was the parent. Currently, DNA paternity tests are the most accurate way to determine the paternity or maternity of a child.

2) Legal Paternity Tests and At-Home Paternity Tests

At Home Paternity tests, also known as “curiosity tests” are not very different from Legal Paternity Tests; the only difference between being how the sample for testing is collected. With At-Home tests, the testing kit is usually sent to a person directly; this kit usually has oral swabs used to collect the saliva sample, documents (terms and conditions and consent), and instructions on how to use the kit. The individuals undertaking the test collect the samples, then send the kit off to the designated lab.

In Legal DNA paternity tests, the samples are collected and documented by third parties. These third parties are usually qualified personnel such as a general practitioner or nurse; they will then verify and testify unto the authenticity of the tests when need be. The testing procedure for both these types of paternity testing is the same.

3) The Cost of Paternity Testing

There is “cheap DNA testing” being offered by many companies. Before rushing for the cheap options, it is wise to remember that paternity tests can have a great impact on your life and that of your loved ones, hence look for quality and reliable services not just cheap. Make sure that the cheap cost of a paternity test does not literally “cost you” more than just money but your family as well, by choosing a reliable DNA testing company.

4) Selecting a Qualified Testing Company

Doing a little research into several reliable DNA testing companies is worth it, as you will get reliable and trustworthy results. The first step is to make sure that the company you select has either an ISO 17025 or AABB; this means all tests are carried out in laboratories with the highest level of professionalism and competence.

It is also important to consider the company’s experience and how many years they have been in business. The reputation of the testing company is also essential, so read consumer reviews to find out what other people’s experiences have been like before selecting a particular company.

Paternity tests are currently the most accurate way of testing for a child’s biological parents. These tests are very critical, as they have a significant impact on all the lives of the parties undertaking the tests. Now you can look for the four things you need to know about paternity tests before buying.

Which paternity test to buy

Determining Which Paternity Test to Buy

Determining Which Paternity Test to Buy

Determining Which Paternity Test to Buy

Determining Which Paternity Test to Buy

People seek paternity tests for a variety of reasons. If you have decided to purchase one of these tests, you may be confused about which one would best suit your circumstances. In order to determine which kind of test might be best for you, the first step may be to explore the options currently available.

Legal Paternity Tests

A legal paternity test is one that might be used for a variety of legal reasons. You may need to buy an official DNA paternity test to resolve a child custody dispute, to back up a claim of child support, or to have the father’s name added to a birth certificate. Other common reasons for legal paternity tests include adherence to immigration guidelines, to settle a will or estate, or to claim social security benefits.

If you are going to utilize a paternity test for legal reasons, you should be aware that the DNA samples will need to be taken by a third party (instead of an involved party). The best third party to take the samples is generally a qualified health care professional, such as a doctor or nurse. The third party will need to properly identify the people being tested.

Prenatal Tests

Prenatal testing could be a viable choice in your case. This type of testing identifies paternity before a child is born. A prenatal test might be invasive or noninvasive. If it is invasive, that means amniotic fluid (which protects the fetus) or chorionic villi (found in the placenta) may be DNA tested. There may be some risk associated with invasive testing, so this should be done with the approval of a qualified doctor. Noninvasive prenatal testing only requires a blood sample from the mother and the possible father. No risk to the unborn child or the mother is involved with noninvasive testing.

Determining Which Paternity Test to Buy Tests Performed at Home

You may simply want to verify paternity for non-legal reasons. In that case, you could benefit from purchasing a paternity test that you can implement at home. This may be a more affordable choice, and you might be able to do an at-home test in as little time as one day. You would take the samples yourself, and then send them to a lab to be tested.

Determining which paternity test to buy can be the most important decision you make. Whether you want to purchase a paternity test for legal reasons or simply to satisfy your curiosity, you might choose from a variety of tests. You may benefit from discussing the matter with a lawyer before you make a decision. Just be sure that you have thoroughly explored all of the options, so you can make your choice with confidence.